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Description: Scientists, engineers, and other domain experts increasingly use data science tools to work with software artifacts. Despite their impact on expert work, these tools are hard to create with domain-agnostic practices, identify these tools as software instruments, a form of co-creative artificial intelligence supporting expression and exploration. I describe my prior and ongoing work making software instruments, their underlying data structures, and their affordances. My proposed thesis work will follow two tracks, one in game design and one in interactive analytics. As a designer, I will work with procedural narrative designers and my own narrative instrument to understand the role of apophenia in improvised storytelling. As an interaction developer, I will work with robotics domain experts to capture and communicate their operational models. Through this work, I aim to describe software instruments, give design principles for their development, and research their impact on the future of work.